Geography of Nepal

Located between 80 ° 04 ‘and 88 ° 12’ East and 26 ° 22 ‘and 30 ° 27’ North, between China (from the north) and India (from the south, west and east). The territory is divided into three parts: the central part of the Himalayas (Greater Himalayas); mountainous areas with terraced slopes leading to fertile valleys where the bulk of Nepal’s population lives; terai (25-30 km strip of plains along the border with India). Nepal has 8 of the 10 highest mountains in the world, including Chomolungma (8850 m). The lowest point in Nepal is 70 m. Main minerals: quartz, …

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MAOIST UPRISING IN NEPAL

In 1992, an anti-landlord peasant movement began in a number of regions of the country, the suppression of which caused an even greater alienation of the peasantry from the official power. The Maoists began their armed struggle in the winter of 1995. On February 4, 1996, the leader of the United Popular Front, Baburam Bhattarai, presented a list of “40 demands” to Prime Minister Sh.B. Deub, proposing to meet before February 17. The memorandum included 40 demands, among which were the abolition of the monarchy, the announcement of a new constitution and the creation of the People’s Republic of Nepal, …

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RESTORING DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL

After nearly a decade of relative stability in the late 1980s, the socio-economic situation of the population deteriorated sharply, caused by the aggravation of Nepal-Indian relations. In February 1990, the Nepalese Congress and the United Left Front launched a political campaign against the Panchayat system, relying on the support of the people of the Kathmandu Valley and many localities in the Terai and Lesser Himalayas. Despite the prohibition of the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, which united the main parties, the protest demonstrations continued for two months. On April 1, after months of bloody clashes, during which about 500 …

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NEPAL UNDER BIRENDER

Mahendra died in 1972, and the throne was succeeded by his eldest son Bir Bikram Birendra, who was formally crowned in 1975. He initially took steps to democratize the government, but without any noticeable redistribution of power. The slowdown in the pace of development, growing corruption among officials and rising prices again led to popular unrest. Under pressure from students and street demonstrations in cities in 1979, Birendra called a 1980 referendum on the future of the panchayat system. According to official data, 55% of the electorate were in favor of keeping it, 45% were against, but in reality the …

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THE 1962 CONSTITUTION OF NEPAL

Viewing the parliamentary system as inconsistent with Nepalese conditions, the king announced a new constitution on December 15, 1962. According to the provisions of the 1962 constitution, all power in the state – executive, legislative and judicial – belonged to the king and emanated from him; the king was the chairman of the Council of Ministers and could appoint members of the cabinet at his discretion. The Constitution also established the Panchayat system of government (Panchayat is the name of the self-government bodies in the countries of South Asia). In accordance with the basic law, a multi-stage system of panchayats …

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