Located between 80 ° 04 ‘and 88 ° 12’ East and 26 ° 22 ‘and 30 ° 27’ North, between China (from the north) and India (from the south, west and east).
The territory is divided into three parts: the central part of the Himalayas (Greater Himalayas); mountainous areas with terraced slopes leading to fertile valleys where the bulk of Nepal’s population lives; terai (25-30 km strip of plains along the border with India). Nepal has 8 of the 10 highest mountains in the world, including Chomolungma (8850 m). The lowest point in Nepal is 70 m.
Main minerals: quartz, small deposits of brown coal, copper, cobalt, iron ore. The soils are diverse: black muddy soils prevail in the terai, red soil and brown forest soils in the forest belt, brown pseudopodzolic soils in the mountainous part, mountain meadow soils in the alpine belt.
Five climatic zones: from the subtropical zone in the south to the climate of cold deserts in the north. The subequatorial monsoon climate prevails. In the eastern part of the country, 2500 mm of precipitation falls per year (maximum – during the summer monsoon), in the western – approx. 1000 mm, in hollows – less than 1500 mm. The rivers (the Ganges basin) are turbulent with great potential for hydropower generation. The most significant of the 6 thousand rivers (with a total length of 45 thousand km) are Karnali, Gandak, Kosi, Bagmati. There are no especially large lakes, the largest are Rara and Pkheva Tal.
The flora and fauna are very rich and varied. There are xerophytic, monsoon, evergreen, deciduous deciduous and coniferous forests, subalpine and alpine meadows, vegetation of cold deserts. Elephants, tigers, leopards, rhinos, wild boars, antelopes live in the forests of the lower slopes of the mountains and in the terai; many monkeys, birds and poisonous snakes. The mountains are dominated by representatives of the Tibetan fauna. UNESCO has included two national parks in the World Heritage List: Chitwan (between the Sivalik and Mahabharat mountain ranges) and Sagarmatha (around Mount Chomolungma).